Category Archives: Mac

Installing Apple Remote Desktop 3.6.1 without first installing the boxed version

Apple Remote Desktop 3.0 was released in 2006. The current version is 3.6.1, and as such your six year old boxed copy license still entitles you to run it.

ARD has undergone some major changes during that time: most notably, Apple switched it from a Postgres database to an SQLite database, which greatly reduced its memory footprint and made it much more self-contained.

After reinstalling Mac OS X on my computer, I didn’t want to first install my boxed copy (version 3.2) because I didn’t want it to bloat my system with a copy of Postgresql that would get replaced by the update anyway.

After six years, it’s a safe bet that the downloadable Admin Update 3.6.1 does not require any previous version’s files. However, the installer checks for the existence of a previous version before allowing you to select the destination drive. This check can be satisfied by first running

defaults write /Applications/Remote\ Desktop.app/Contents/Info CFBundleShortVersionString -float 3.0

I’d like to point out that it still requires the license key that came in the box when you first run ARD.

Troubleshooting Apple Software Update Server

We are currently in the process of migrating towards a thin imaging approach for the Macs I manage at my university. One of the things we needed was an Apple Software Update Server, which is pretty straight forward to set up using Server Admin. I used Snow Leopard Server 10.6.8 with Lion updates enabled as described in Apple’s KB article.

A command I found extremely useful:

sudo serveradmin settings swupdate | grep "enable = no" | awk -F '=' '{print $1"= yes"}' | sudo serveradmin settings

This command enables all available updates. If you have set SUS to automatically mirror, but not automatically enable, this command saves you from having to click on every single one of the 600 updates to enable it.

A few days after I set up my SUS I was starting to see a bunch of error messages in /var/log/swupd/swupd_syncd_log after starting a sync run using the refresh button below the updates list in Server Admin. I’ll go over them here and explain my fixes:

“Product file URL contains possible security violation.” in log

*** Product file URL contains possible security violation.
*** Product ID: "11D2515_ServerEssentials"; file URL: "http://swcdn.apple.com/content/downloads/10/59/11D2515_ServerEssentials/xajda1v3ycqbtv75fiw5hvosaovu9to9hc/ServerEssentials.dst/041-5774.Italian.dist"
*** Reason: file download path cannot be reached / does not exist.
*** The suspect product file will not be downloaded.

A few Lion updates contain subfolders, which SUS does not create. Simply create those subfolders (mkdir /var/db/swupd/content/downloads/10/59/11D2515_ServerEssentials/xajda1v3ycqbtv75fiw5hvosaovu9to9hc/ServerEssentials.dst; chown _softwareupdate /var/db/swupd/content/downloads/10/59/11D2515_ServerEssentials/xajda1v3ycqbtv75fiw5hvosaovu9to9hc/ServerEssentials.dst) and have SUS recheck for available updates.

[EDIT: The original version of this blog post used curl to download the file, but forgot to chown the folder. Letting SUS download the file itself is the cleaner solution.]

[EDIT 2: This issue is really widespread with the ARD Client 3.6 update, where http://swcdn.apple.com/content/downloads/31/58/041-5433/xt9k9paj5zu8rx258rdccohk236ee77clh/RemoteDesktopClient.dst/041-5433.*.dist fails. This does solve this issue.]

“Product XXX-YYYY is no longer available and has no replacement” in log or “*** Missing version string for product XXX-YYYY” in log or “_productId Update” showing up in Server Admin

Your catalog is corrupted. Delete it to have it rebuilt automatically. The following commands help:

sudo serveradmin stop swupdate
cd $(sudo serveradmin settings swupdate:updatesDocRoot | awk -F '"' '{print $2}')/html/content
mv catalogs catalogs.old
sudo serveradmin start swupdate

Create a bootable Mac OS X Lion Server USB drive

  1. Download Lion from the Mac App Store.
  2. Use Disk Utility to restore /Applications/Install Mac OS X Lion.app/Contents/SharedSupport to a USB flash drive.
  3. Download Lion Server from the Mac App Store.
  4. Grab the correct version of ServerEssentials.pkg by running curl “http://swscan.apple.com/content/catalogs/others/index-lion-snowleopard-leopard.merged-1.sucatalog” | grep ServerEssentials in a Terminal, searching for the line that corresponds to your version of Lion (it can be identified by looking at ./System/Library/CoreServices/SystemVersion.plist on the flash drive), and downloading the file from the link referenced by that line (it will look like http://swcdn.apple.com/content/downloads/21/09/11E53_ServerEssentials/yfLkxRYr8GczRPHKBSpStgMYT3kjRnKQRf/ServerEssentials.pkg).
  5. Drop the downloaded ServerEssentials.pkg into ./Packages on the flash drive.
  6. If after installing from the Flash drive, you are missing /Applications/Server.app, that can easily be extracted from the Lion Server Combo Updater (use the version that corresponds to your Lion version) using Pacifist.

More details here.

Mount ext3 VMDK in VMWare Fusion using VMDKMounter

VMWare Fusion 3 comes with a tool called VMDKMounter.app. It allowed you to simply double-click NTFS or FAT32 VMDKs and they would be mounted on your desktop.

VMWare Fusion 4 dropped this tool, but you can download version 3.1.3 and extract /Library/Application Support/VMware Fusion/VMDKMounter.app from the package using Pacifist (just make sure that VMDKMounter.app/Contents/MacOS/vmware-vmdkMounterTool has the sticky bit set and is owned by root:wheel after you extract it).

Next, install OSXFUSE (the successor to MacFUSE) and fuse-ext2 if you don’t already have them installed.

VMDKMounter attempts to mount EXT2 using /System/Library/Filesystems/ext2.fs/Contents/Resources/mount_ext2, so we need to create two symlinks:

cd /System/Library/Filesystems
sudo ln -s fuse-ext2.fs ext2.fs
cd ext2.fs/Contents/Resources
sudo ln -s ../../mount_fuse-ext2 mount_ext2

Now we’re all set, you can simply open a VMDK by double-clicking it, or you can right-click a VMWare VM and open it with VMDKMounter.app and automatically have all its VMDKs mounted.

If you are receiving an NTFS-3G error message when mounting a non-NTFS VMDK: that’s perfectly normal, so you can just click OK. The error message is due to VMDKMounter simply trying a bunch of file system mounters until it finds one that doesn’t fail. As far as I can tell, it tries (in that order) ntfs, msdos, ntfs-3g, hfs, ext2, ext3.

Extending Active Directory for Mac OS X clients

After I wrote about building your own OpenDirectory server on Linux a while back, I decided to do the same thing on Windows Server 2008 R2. The process of extending the AD schema to include Apple classes and attributes is documented by Apple (this is the Leopard version of the document – if you don’t plan on having exclusively Snow Leopard clients, you can follow the newer version of the document that skips a couple of things that Snow Leopard no longer needs).

But since schema extensions are generally frowned upon in the Windows world because they’re irreversible (why the heck, Microsoft…?), I initially tried a dual-directory (golden triangle, magic triangle) type approach where I’d be augmenting my AD with Apple records coming from an AD LDS (Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services, previously called ADAM, Active Directory User Mode, which is basically a plain LDAP server from Microsoft). While this may sound like a great idea, I just couldn’t get it to work. After dozens of manual schema extensions to AD LDS (Microsoft doesn’t include many standard LDAP attributes, so I had to dig through the dependencies of apple.schema and even tried importing a complete OD schema), I gave up because I could not get Workgroup Manager to authenticate against it to allow me to make changes.

So the next thing to do was follow Apple’s AD schema extension guide (linked above) and do what everybody else did. This was rather straight-forward (managed preferences for users, groups and computers worked right away), but when I tried to create a computer list (which is not possible using Snow Leopard’s Server Admin Tools, but requires Tiger’s (which throw loads of errors on Snow Leopard but still get the job done) since Leopard introduced computer groups which however are not supported by the AD plugin), it just said I didn’t have permission to do that. After enabling DirectoryService debug logging (killall -USR1 DirectoryService && killall -USR2 DirectoryService), I traced it down to Active Directory: Add record CN=Untitled_1,CN=Mac OS X,DC=xxx,DC=zz with FAILED – LDAP Error 19 in /Library/Logs/DirectoryService/*. Apparently, that’s caused by some versions of ADSchemaAnalyzer setting objectClassCategory to 0 instead of 1 on all exported classes. Too bad AD schema extensions are irreversible and that’s one of the attributes you can’t change later on… 🙁 Well, with AD Schema Management MMC snap-in, I was able to rename the botched apple-computer-list class, defunct it and add a new one using ldifde. With some really wild hacking in the AD Schema using ADSI Editor, I was then able to  eventually get OS X to no longer look at the renamed attribute, but instead at the new one. To see whether you have been successful, killall DirectoryService, wait a few seconds and grep -H computer-list /Library/Preferences/DirectoryService/ActiveDirectory* will show a line indicating which class in the schema it’s using.

Once you’re there, everything should work as expected. If you don’t want to use Tiger’s Workgroup Manager to create old-style computer lists, you can do that in ADSI Editor and create apple-computer-list objects in the CN=Mac OS X branch by hand.

So, attached is the schema ldif that’s exactly the way it should be. I really wonder why Apple doesn’t provide it themselves – it’s going to turn out exactly like that every time you follow their guide on any Windows server… Apple Schema for Active Directory

I guess that the overall conclusion of this should be that AD schema extensions in general and specifically Mac OS X managed clients in AD environments are a nasty hack. I suppose the dual directory/magic triangle/golden triangle approach with a Microsoft AD and an Apple OD would work, but it requires maintaining two separate directories, which may not be that great in a larger environment either.

If Apple discontinues Mac OS X Server at some point in the near future (which the demise of the Xserve and the lack of announcements regarding Mac OS X 10.7 Server alongside Mac OS X Lion suggest), this is definitely something they need to improve. There are some third-party solutions that store MCX settings outside of AD (similar to Windows GPOs, which are stored on the SYSVOL share) such Thursby ADmitMac – however that’s a rather expensive solution (a dozen client licenses costs about as much as two Mac mini servers) and might break after OS updates (though from what I’ve heard, they’re rather quick at providing updates). If Apple does discontinue Mac OS X Server, they should definitely improve Lion’s AD integration to replicate ADmitMac’s features.

Slim down Final Cut Studio’s Media Content using HFS Compression

A full installation of Final Cut Studio 3 with all media content (for Motion, DVD Studio Pro, and Soundtrack Pro Loops) takes up around 40-50 GB of hard drive space.
How about regaining 5-10 GB of precious by enabling HFS compression for these folders? Since HFS compression is completely transparent, there are no adverse effects to expect (other than browsing the content libraries being almost unnoticeably slower).

To start, you’ll need a command-line tool called afsctool which can compress (and, amongst other features, decompress) folders using HFS compression. The command you’ll need to run is e.g. sudo afsctool -c -l -k -v -i -9 /Library/Application\ Support/Final\ Cut\ Studio. This compresses all files the given folder using the highest possible compression, verifies its results, prints out the names of files it is unable to compress, and outputs statistics once it’s done.

Some of the folders I compressed:
/Library/Application Support/Final Cut Studio/ (contains Motion and DVD Studio Pro templates): 22.5% compression savings
/Library/Application Support/LiveType/ (contains Motion’s LiveType fonts): 11.4% compression savings
/Library/Application Support/GarageBand/ (contains GarageBand’s  instruments and learning-to-play stuff): 14.3% compression savings
/Library/Application Support/iDVD/ (contains iDVD’s themes): 19.5% compression savings
/Library/Audio/Apple Loops/ (contains GarageBand’s and Soundtrack Pro’s loops): 4.1%
/Library/Audio/Impulse Responses/ (contains  Soundtrack Pro’s impulse response data): 41.3% compression savings

Looking at the compression savings: everything that contains high-quality video can be compressed by around 20%, while audio which is already heavily compressed only yields around 5%. The most amazing result though are the 40% by which the Impulse Responsed were compressed – apparently, these are uncompressed AIFF audio files and thus ideal for compression.

Obviously, your mileage may vary and I’m not responsible if you compress too much and break your system (I’m sure there is a reason why Apple didn’t compress all system files). However, compressing the iLife and Final Cut Studio media content appears safe, I haven’t noticed any unwanted side-effects and it seems well worth trying if you’d like to regain a few gigabytes.

Building your own OpenDirectory server on Linux

OpenDirectory is a feature included with Mac OS X Server. Wouldn’t it be nice if you could use it without having to spend hundreds of dollars on a server license? Wouldn’t it be great if you could add it into your existing Linux-based OpenLDAP server? It’s actually quite easy because OpenDirectory is a standard OpenLDAP server with a special Apple schema.

0. Prerequisites
– OpenLDAP server with Samba integration (I’m runnig it on a Ubuntu 8.04 server, using the standard OpenLDAP and Samba packages). I won’t go into the details of how to set this up, there are lots of tutorials around the web on this.
– some kind of LDAP admin tool, I used phpLDAPAdmin
– Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard clients

1. Adding the Apple schema to your OpenDirectory server
It is located in /etc/openldap/schema/apple.schema on any Mac. Copy this file to your OpenLDAP server and add it to your slapd.conf.
You may run into the problem that apple.schema references some samba.schema entries that were deprecated with Samba 3. Specifically, these are acctFlags, pwdLastSet, logonTime, logoffTime, kickoffTime, homeDrive, scriptPath, profilePath, userWorkstations, smbHome, rid and primaryGroupID, so you’ll need to editapple.schema and replace these with their Samba 3 counterparts.
Now, restart the OpenLDAP daemon so it recognizes the changes.

2. Adding some Mac-specific attributes to your LDAP server
Add an ou=macosx branch to your LDAP tree, under which you’ll need to create ou=accesscontrols, ou=augments, ou=automountMap, ou=autoserversetup, ou=certificateauthorities, ou=computer_groups, ou=computer_lists, ou=computers, ou=filemakerservers, ou=locations, ou=machines, ou=maps, ou=mount, ou=neighborhoods, ou=places, ou=preset_computer_groups, ou=preset_computer_lists, ou=preset_computers, ou=preset_groups, ou=preset_users, ou=printers, and ou=resources.
To all your LDAP groups, add the apple-group objectClass. To all your LDAP users, add the apple-user objectClass.

3. Connecting your Mac to the LDAP directory
On your Mac, go into Directory Access and add your LDAP server. Choose OpenDirectory as the server type and adjust the Samba mappings to match your changes from step 1. Here is a plist you can import into Directory Access that already has these mappings corrected: LDAPv3_Unix_Samba3_OD.plist.
If you want your other clients to automatically use this mapping, create a cn=config branch in your LDAP tree and use the Write to Server button in Directory Access.

4. Use Workgroup Manager to set network home folders, managed preferences, …
Now, you can use Workgroup Manager to manage network home folders and managed preferences, just like you would on a Mac server.  You’ll need to authenticate using an LDAP user who has full write privileges to the directory (as set in slapd.conf). The standard cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com user will NOT work.

5. Conclusion
Almost everything works, except for:
– adding new users and group through Workgroup Manager
– solution: unknown
– assigning directory admin privileges to users through Workgroup Manager
– solution: using an OpenLDAP server set up to use cn=config instead of slapd.conf. This will also require going into Directory Access again and adding the OLCBDBConfig, OLCFrontEndConfig, OCGlobalConfig, OLCSchemaConfig and OLCOverlayDynamicID record types back in (they are included in the OpenDirectory mapping, but I deleted them from mine because they only cause error messages on an OpenLDAP server with slapd.conf configuration).

Here are all the web sites that helped me in the process of figuring this out:
http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?path=ServerAdmin/10.4/en/c6od15.html (this one is especially important because it explains what to do if your LDAP server is not set up for SASL authentication)
http://www.emmes-world.de/mac-afp-homes.html (this one describes a similar setup and was my most important resource)
http://rajeev.name/blog/2006/09/09/integrating-mac-os-x-into-unix-ldap-environment-with-nfs-home-directories/
http://www.netmojo.ca/blog/tag/ldap/
http://www.macdevcenter.com/pub/a/mac/2003/08/26/active_directory.html?page=2

7. Further Information
Since you’re not using Kerberos for authentication, you may want to look at securing your LDAP connections with SSL. Here are some links that talk about it:
http://www.novell.com/coolsolutions/feature/19965.html
http://www.afp548.com/article.php?story=20071203011158936

Someone else also wrote a blog post about Setting up a Linux server for OS X clients, in which they also describe how to incorporate Kerberos into the whole equation. That’s certainly something worth considering.